Reporting cycles

Has your business chosen reporting cycles for the disclosure of its financial and non-financial data which are appropriate for the long term interests, strategies and goals of the organisation?

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OKAY Answers

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Has the time come to put an end to quarterly reporting? Sound investment decisions depend upon access to timely and accurate business information, both financial and non-financial. However, many are of the view that reporting cycles designed to serve the apparent needs of investors and other key stakeholders may hinder effective business and operational decision-making, and thus actually diminish shareholder value rather than enhance it.

On one hand, markets and regulators desire ever more reliable, credible, and transparent information. On the other, many businesses believe they are being unnecessarily burdened. Some feel that the costs of compliance and reporting are rising without obvious economic benefit, and it would be preferable to invest their resources in product and service innovation, in seeking out new opportunities, and in value-added activities instead.

As argued by Legal & General Investment Management (LGIM) in its 2015 annual governance report, quarterly reports do provide an opportunity for management to update their broader investor base and manage their expectations, but they come at a cost in terms of resources and can also potentially impact strategic decisions. LGIM contends that most business managers would agree that it takes at least three to five years for meaningful change to occur in companies. In some businesses, particularly research and development-led sectors, decisions taken today might only come to fruition in 10-20 years’ time.

The 2012 Kay Review commissioned by the government to explore how well equity markets were achieving their core purposes: to enhance the performance of UK companies and to enable savers to benefit from the activity of these businesses through returns to direct and indirect ownership of shares in UK companies, returned nine core proposals. Amongst them was the following: “Reduce the pressures for short-term decision making that arise from excessively frequent reporting of financial and investment performance (including quarterly reporting by companies), and from excessive reliance on particular metrics and models for measuring performance, assessing risk and valuing assets.”

Also in 2012, the Generation Foundation published Sustainable Capitalism, which identifies five actions including ending the default practice of issuing quarterly earnings guidance.
A 2013 report it commissioned Building A Long-Term Shareholder Base: Assessing The Potential Of Loyalty-Driven Securities, building on this earlier work, recommended “abandoning quarterly reporting given its potentially adverse effects on both companies and investors”.

In 2013, the European Union altered the Transparency Directive for listed companies by removing the mandatory requirement for interim management statements. The UK’s Financial Conduct Authority (FCA) subsequently implemented the change and the regulatory requirements were officially amended on 7 November 2014.

However, since then, only a small number of companies (Diageo, United Utilities, National Grid and G4S) have stated their intention to drop their quarterly reports.

Reasons cited for why so few businesses have, as of yet, dropped quarterly reporting include:

  • It suits some industries (e.g. in retail, investors want to know how each season of clothing performed)
  • It is still a legal requirement in other countries for global firms (e.g. in the US)
  • Businesses are used to the status quo, reluctant to change, and fearful of litigation
  • Investors have not called for new approaches to reporting in unison
  • Some analytical models rely on quarterly numbers
  • It is reinforced by cyclicality, global competition for capital and the preferences of shareholders overseas

While acknowledging that removing quarterly reports and moving to semi-annual updates would not be a panacea in creating a more long-term investment environment, LGIM is nonetheless confident that asking companies for long-term business growth and expecting them to meet consensus targets every quarter is contradictory, and possibly counter-productive. As a result, in 2015 it decided to lend its support to companies considering discontinuing their quarterly reports by writing directly to the chairs of all the FTSE 350 companies.

In these letters, LGIM reiterated that the decision on reporting frequency lies with the board, which should base its decision on the nature of its business and its investor base. It made clear its preference, however, was for less communication on short-term achievements and more articulation of business strategies, market dynamics and innovation drivers.

The same rationales apply to disclosure of data relating to sustainability. Sustainability reporting requires that an organisation understands how it impacts on its stakeholders, and ways in which it might mitigate negative impacts on the economy, society and the environment. Similarly, integrated reporting emphasises the inclusion of forward-looking information to allow stakeholders to make a more informed assessment of the future value creation ability of the organisation. Integrated reporting aims to combine and integrate the financial and non-financial data businesses measure, use and report on. Sustainability and integrated reporting by their very nature require businesses to consider, plan for, work towards and articulate longer term strategic issues.

Reporting cycle

A “reporting cycle” is the span of time covered by a set of financial statements. The reporting period is typically either a month, quarter, or year. Organisations use the same reporting periods from year to year, so that their financial statements can be compared to the ones produced in earlier periods.

Narrative reporting

“Narrative reporting” describes the non-financial information included in annual reports to provide a broad and meaningful picture of the company's business, its market position, strategy, performance and future prospects.

Quarterly report

A “quarterly report” is an interim management statement consisting of financial statements issued by a company every three months.

Sustainability report

A “sustainability report” is an organisational report that gives information about economic, environmental, social and governance performance.

Integrated report

An “integrated report” is a concise communication about how an organisation's strategy, governance, performance and prospects lead to the creation of value over the short, medium and long term.

Price sensitive information

Listed companies are obliged to release “price sensitive information” to the market as soon as they are in possession of it, irrespective of where it is in its periodical reporting cycle. Price sensitive information can relate to any new developments which are not public knowledge which, if made public, would be likely to lead to a significant movement in the share price.

Answering YES

All Businesses MUST

Describe their business size, sector and key stakeholder groups

Explain how often they report financial data per annum and why they have chosen that reporting cycle

Explain how often they report non-financial data per annum and why they have chosen that reporting cycle

Explain how they ensure that their reporting of financial and non-financial data is aligned with the long term interests, strategies and goals of the organisation

All Businesses MAY

Outline any sector-specific issues which affect reporting and reporting cycles

State whether reporting cycles are discussed at board level and how often

State whether they seek engagement with shareholders or other stakeholders for whom reports are prepared

Explain any other relevant policies and practices

Answering NO

All Businesses MUST

Explain why they do not or cannot answer YES to this question and list any mitigating circumstances or any other reasons which apply

All Businesses MAY

Describe any relevant practices and policies even though they may fall short of the requirements to answer YES to this question

Set out any relevant future plans

DON'T KNOW is not a permissible answer to this question

NOT APPLICABLE is not a permissible answer to this question

Version 1

To receive a score of 'Excellent'

Business clearly demonstrates its reporting of financial and non-financial data is aligned with long term interests, strategies and goals

Examples of policy and practice which may support the EXCELLENT statement:

  1. e.g. Engages with - and incorporates feedback from - investors, customers or other interested parties
  2. e.g. Clear explanation as to why current reporting frequency is the optimal one for the business
  3. e.g. Explains clearly how financial reporting is aligned with the overall strategy of organisation and stakeholder needs
  4. e.g. Actively pursues and consistently delivers high quality, succinct reporting
  5. e.g. Explains that it reports to recognised standards or frameworks such as GRI or Integrated Reporting and why
To receive a score of 'Good'

Business has taken steps to align reporting of financial and non-financial data with long term interests, strategies and goals

Examples of policy and practice which may support the GOOD statement:

  1. e.g. Is responsive to feedback from investors, customers and other interested parties in the best way to report information
  2. e.g. High quality and succinct reporting is the norm
  3. e.g. States whether it reports to recognised standards or frameworks such as GRI or Integrated Reporting
To receive a score of 'Okay'

Business proactive on some issues relating to effective reporting OR reporting issues are not material to the business

Examples of policy and practice which may support the OKAY statement:

  1. e.g. Some evidence the business has considered its approach to financial and non financial reporting with its overall strategy and/or the interests of stakeholders
  2. e.g. A business’s small size suggests the issue is of limited materiality
To receive a score of 'Poor'

Business demonstrates no interest in or knowledge of issues relating to effective reporting

Examples of policy and practice which may support the POOR statement:

  1. e.g. No disclosures relating to reporting or reporting strategy
  2. e.g. Shows no indication of interest nor intention to improve