Modern slavery is a widespread, complex global crime taking a number of different forms. It encompasses child slavery, bonded labour, forced and compulsory labour, descent-based slavery, early and forced marriage, and human trafficking.
Bonded labour is the most widespread form of slavery in the world. A person becomes a bonded labourer when their labour is demanded as a means of repayment for a loan.
Child Labour is the exploitation of children through any means that deprives children of their childhood, interferes with their ability to attend school, and is mentally, physically, and morally harmful. It is not slavery, but nevertheless hinders children’s education, development and future livelihoods.
Child Slavery refers to any institution or practice whereby a child or young person under the age of 18 years, is delivered by either both of his natural parents or by his guardian to another person, whether for reward or not, with a view to the exploitation of the child or young person of their labour”.
Child Work refers to some types of work which make useful, positive contributions to a child's development. If children help out in a family farm or business, the tasks they do must be safe and suited to their level of development and comply with national labour laws. Children's work should not jeopardise any of their other rights, including the right to education, or the right to relaxation and play.
Descent-based Slavery describes a situation where people are born into a slave class, caste or group viewed as being in slavery by other members of their society.
Direct Involvement occurs by employing a trafficked or exploited person within the business or through a subcontractor or recruitment agency
Early and Forced Marriage can be said to be slavery if the victim:
>> has not given their free and informed consent to enter the marriage
>> is subjected to control a sense of “ownership” in the marriage itself (through abuse, threats, exploitation to undertake domestic chores within or outside the marital home and/or engage in non-consensual sexual relations)
>> cannot realistically leave or end the marriage, leading potentially to a lifetime of slavery
Forced Labour is when all work or service which is exacted from any person under the menace of any penalty and for which the said person has not offered himself voluntarily.
Human Trafficking is the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt of persons, by means of the threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, abduction, fraud, deception, abuse of power. It can also be performed by means of a position of vulnerability, giving or receiving payments, or through benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person for the purpose of exploitation. Exploitation shall include, at a minimum, the exploitation of the prostitution of others or other forms of sexual exploitation, forced labour or services, slavery or practices similar to slavery, servitude or the removal of organs.
Indirect Involvement occurs through illegal subcontracting within the supply chain or through use of products or materials which have been produced by people under conditions of forced labour.
Involvement By Association is where trafficking occurs within the local area as the result of a company’s operations, or as a secondary consequence of a company’s actions.
The Kafala system is a system where sponsors have a set of legal abilities to control workers: without the employer’s permission, workers cannot change jobs, quit jobs, or leave the country.
Transparency in Supply Chains is Part 6 of the Modern Slavery Act 2015 (United Kingdom), which seeks to address the role of businesses in preventing modern slavery from occurring in their supply chains and organisations by requiring business to provide a statement every financial year. Guidance has been published to assist businesses reporting on their supply chain.